In many ways artificial grass is the Bizarro-world cousin of carpet. It is made using the same ‘tufting process’ (first patented in Dalton, Georgia, according to the Carpet and Rug Institute) as many carpets and is also given a secondary backing applied with adhesive. However, unlike carpet, natural fibres are eschewed in favour of pure synthetics.
The composition does vary - many use a combination of polyethylene and polypropylene, and other manufacturers prefer nylon for its springiness, something which carpet also benefits from.
These plastic polymers are extruded into long strands and put onto spools, much like wool yarn, and then shaped in various ways to make them appear ‘grass like’
It is also common for it to be treated to protect them against ultra-violet light to counter the overheating issues faced in the past.
Like carpet, it is very important what goes under the product as well, however the installation process can be far more complex, even in domestic settings. The ground should be levelled for landscaping, and it is common for there to be layers of gravel put down. In some cases various ‘infills’ such as sand, cork or crumb rubber are added between the fibres to support them.